MAC Apple OS X Keyboard Shortcuts

To use a keyboard shortcut, or key combination, you press a modifier key with a character key. For example, pressing the Command key (the key that has a  symbol) and the “c” key at the same time copies whatever is currently selected (text, graphics, and so forth) into the Clipboard. This is also known as the Command-C key combination (or keyboard shortcut).

A modifier key is a part of many key combinations. A modifier key alters the way other keystrokes or mouse/trackpad clicks are interpreted by OS X. Modifier keys include: Command, Shift, Option, Control, Caps Lock, and the Fn key. If your keyboard has an Fn key, you may need to use it in some of the key combinations listed below. For example, if the keyboard shortcut is Control-F2, press Fn-Control-F2.

Here are the modifier key symbols you may see in OS X menus:

Command key
Control key
Option key
Shift Key
Caps Lock
Fn Function Key

Startup shortcuts

Press the key or key combination until the expected function occurs/appears (for example, hold Option during startup until Startup Manager appears, or Shift until “Safe Boot” appears). Tip: If a startup function doesn’t work and you use a third-party keyboard, try again with an Apple keyboard.

Option Display all bootable volumes (Startup Manager)
Shift Perform a Safe Boot (start up in Safe Mode)
Left Shift Prevent automatic login
C Start from bootable media (DVD, CD, USB thumb drive, and so forth)
T Start in FireWire target disk mode
N Start from NetBoot server
X Force Mac OS X startup (if non-Mac OS X startup volumes are present)
D Use Apple Hardware Test
Command-R Use Recovery (OS X Lion or later)
Command-V Start in Verbose Mode
Command-S Start in Single User Mode
Command-Option-P-R Reset NVRAM / parameter RAM
Hold down the Media Eject (⏏) key or F12 key, or mouse or trackpad button Eject removable discs

Sleep and shut down shortcuts

Power button Turn off your Mac or put it to sleep
Hold down the power button Force your Mac to shut down
Command-Control-power button Force your Mac to restart
Control-Media Eject (⏏) Show restart/sleep/shutdown dialog
Command-Option-Media Eject (⏏) Put the computer to sleep
Command-Control-Media Eject (⏏) Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open documents), then restart the computer
Command-Option-Control-Media Eject (⏏) Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open documents), then shut down the computer
Shift-Control-Media Eject (⏏) Put all displays to sleep

Finder keyboard shortcuts

Command-A Select all items in the front Finder window (or desktop if no window is open)
Command-Option-A Deselect all items
Command-Shift-A Open the Applications folder
Command-C Copy selected item/text to the Clipboard
Command-Shift-C Open the Computer window
Command-D Duplicate selected item
Command-Shift-D Open desktop folder
Command-E Eject
Command-F Find any matching Spotlight attribute
Command-Shift-F Find Spotlight file name matches
Command-Option-F Navigate to the search field in an already-open Spotlight window
Command-Shift-G Go to Folder
Command-Shift-H Open the Home folder of the currently logged-in user account
Command-I Get Info
Command-Option-I Show Inspector
Command-Control-I Get Summary Info
Command-Shift-I Open iDisk
Command-J Show View Options
Command-K Connect to Server
Command-Shift-K Open Network window
Command-L Make alias of the selected item
Command-M Minimize window
Command-Option-M Minimize all windows
Command-N New Finder window
Command-Shift-N New folder
Command-Option-N New Smart Folder
Command-O Open selected item
Command-Shift-Q Log Out
Command-Shift-Option-Q Log Out immediately
Command-R Show original (of alias)
Command-T Add to Sidebar
Command-Shift-T Add to Favorites
Command-Option-T Hide Toolbar / Show Toolbar in Finder windows
Command-Shift-U Open Utilities folder
Command-V Paste
Command-W Close window
Command-Option-W Close all windows
Command-X Cut
Command-Option-Y Slideshow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)
Command-Z Undo / Redo
Command-1 View as Icon
Command-2 View as List
Command-3 View as Columns
Command-4 View as Cover Flow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)
Command-Comma (,) Open Finder preferences
Command-Accent (`) (the Accent key above Tab key on a US English keyboard layout) Cycle through open Finder windows
Command-Shift-Question Mark (?) Open Mac Help
Command-Left Bracket ([) Go to the previous folder
Command-Right Bracket (]) Go to the next folder
Command-Up Arrow Open the folder that contains the current folder
Command-Control-Up Arrow Open the folder that contains the current folder in a new window
Command-Down Arrow Open highlighted item
Command-Shift-Up Arrow Make the desktop active
Right Arrow (in List view) Open the selected folder
Left Arrow (in List view) Close the selected folder
Option-click the disclosure triangle (in List view) Open all folders within the selected folder
Option–double-click Open a folder in a separate window, closing the current window
Command–double-click Open a folder in a separate window
Command-click the window title See the folders that contain the current window
Command-Tab Switch application–cycle forward
Command-Shift-Tab Switch application–cycle backward
Command-Delete Move to Trash
Command-Shift-Delete Empty Trash
Command-Shift-Option-Delete Empty Trash without confirmation dialog
Space bar (or Command-Y) Quick Look (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)
Command key while dragging Move dragged item to other volume/location (pointer icon changes while key is held-
Option key while dragging Copy dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held-
Command-Option key combination while dragging Make alias of dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held–see

Universal Access   VoiceOver keyboard commands

Command-F5 or Fn-Command-F5 Turn VoiceOver on or off
Option-Control-F8 or Fn-Option-Control-F8 Open VoiceOver Utility (if VoiceOver is on)
Option-Control-F7 or Fn-Option-Control-F7 Display VoiceOver menu (if VoiceOver is on)
Option-Control-Semicolon (;) Enable/disable VoiceOver Control Option-lock
Command-Option-8 Turn Zoom on or off
Command-Option-Plus (+) Zoom In
Command-Option-Minus (–) Zoom Out
Command-Option-Control-8 Invert/revert the screen colors (OS X Lion or earlier)
Command-Option-Control-Comma (,) Reduce contrast (OS X Lion or earlier)
Command-Option-Control-Period (.) Increase contrast (OS X Lion or earlier)

Full keyboard access

Full keyboard access lets you use your keyboard to navigate and interact with items on the screen. Use these shortcuts to select and adjust controls such as text fields and sliders.

Tab Move to the next control
Shift-Tab Move to the previous control
Control-Tab Move to the next control when a text field is selected
Arrow keys Move to the adjacent item in a list, tab group, or menu
Move sliders and adjusters (vertical up and down arrows used to increase and decrease values)
Control-Arrow keys Move to a control adjacent to the text field
Space bar Select the highlighted menu item
Return or Enter Click the default button or perform the default action
Esc Click the Cancel button
Close a menu without choosing an item
Left Arrow and Right Arrow Move from menu to menu
Return Open a selected menu
Up Arrow and Down Arrow Move to menu items in the selected menu
Type the menu item’s name Jump to a menu item in the selected menu
Return Select a menu item

Universal Access – Mouse Keys

8 Move Up
2 Move Down
4 Move Left
6 Move Right
1 Move Diagonally Bottom Left
3 Move Diagonally Bottom Right
7 Move Diagonally Top Left
9 Move Diagonally Top Right
5 Press Mouse Button
0 Hold Mouse Button
. (Period on number pad) Release Hold Mouse Button